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    2020年08月04日 22:24 来源:澳门曼哈顿

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    澳门曼哈顿ByLongGuoqiang,ResearchTeamon"ChinasComparativeAdvantageChangesandTheirImplications"ofDRCResearchReportNo88,2013(Total4337)roduceaproductwithloweropportunitycostthananotherproductandthuscanfocusonproductsandexportproductswithevenlowrativeadvantage,,acountry,whenweobservechangesintradestructuresofvariouscountries,,theJapaneseacademiccircleputforwardthetheoryofdynamiccomparativecostinthe1950s,dvantagesareresthesupply-demandrelationshipofproductionfactors,governmentalpolicies,andintrseconomicdevelopmentasadynamicprocess,wherealleconomicfactorsincludingproductionfactorendowmentwouldchangeandtherebyrenewacountrys,whenacountryparticipatesintheinternationaldivisionoflaborinlightofitsexistingcomparativeadvantages,itneedstosupportandpromotedomestickeyindustrieswithnationalresourcesandtostrengthenitsinternati“FourAsianTigers”havemadehugesuccessbecausetheirgovernmentspurposefullyguidedtheupgradingofindustrialstructureandexportloballargestexporterbyseizingthehistoricalopportunityofthecross-bordertransferoess,asitmainlyexportsfin,andinrecentyearssomeproductswithhighertechnologicalcontenthavegraduallygainedinternationalcompetitiveness,suchasmoyanddemand,butwithemergingstructuralcontr,somenewadvantagesareappearing,evidencedbyfastexpansion,domesticmarketwithquickupgradingofdemandstructure,abundantcapital,humanresourceswithsubstantiallyimprovededucationattainment,completeindustrialsupportcapacities,constantlybetteredcapacityfortechnologicalinnovation,perfectinfrastructureandincreasinglystrengthenedcapacityforoverseasinvestment,,ChinaneedstoshiftitsexportstrategybasedonstatscomparativeadvantagesChina,exportedprimaryproductsaccountedfor51%ofthetotalexportvolume,butithasbeenreducedtoonly5%now,withtheother95%,despitetheover60%shareformachineryandelectricproductsandtheover30%,analysesfromtheperspectiveofthevaluechainofglobaldivisionoflaborevidentlyshowthatmostofsuchproducts,inrecenttenyears,thetec,Chinascomparativeadvantagesoflabor-intensiveproductsshouldbeattributedtothegovernmentsexport-orientedstrategyInfaceofthestrategicopportunitybroughtaboutbythecross-bordertransferofexport-orientedlabor-intensiveindustriesinEastAsia,theChinesegovernmenthasformulatedstrategiestoparticipateininternat,Chinahasformedthestrongexportcompetitivenessoflabor-intensiveindustriesbycombiningitsadvantageoflow-costlaborwithadvancedtechnology,management,brandandinternatioscomparativeadvantagesofexportarestillconcentratedonthelabor-intensivelinkwithlowaddedvaluesofar,despitethegovernmentscomparativeadvantagesareundergoingsignificantchangesThispaperanalyzesthechangingprocessandtheprospectoffactorsinfluencingChina,whichanalyzesthechangingpresto,whichanalyzesthechangingtendencyoffactorsinfluencingChinascom,China,thecostofortandmaintaintheinternationalcompe,theshareofsometraditionallabor-intensiveproductshasbecomesmallerintheinternationalmarket.ByMaJunZongFangyu,ResearchTeamon"KeyAreasforInnovativeDevelopmentBasicResearch"ofDRCResearchReportNo108,2013(Total4357)InChina,thenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(SMEs)accountsfor99%ofthetotalnumberofenterprises,providingmorethan80%ofurbanjobopportunitiesandcontributingabout60%ofChina,"highinput,highenergyconsumptionandhighemission"andat"lowcost,lowpricesandlowprofits".Employeesare"badlypaid,inaccessibletosocialsecurity,facedwithhighlaborintensityandpoorworkingconditions".Thus,SMEshavebecomethefocalanddifficultpointinChina,obstaclesincurredfromrelevantsystemsandmechethetransfcesofvariouscountries:one,,andtheirpurchase,,ononehand,privateenterprisesaredisinclinedtooffertechnicalserviceinformationowingtoinadequatereturnsand,ontheother,SMEsarelesscapableofacquiring,,technol,andtechnologyownersareinclinedtousetechnologiestodevelopproductstoea,agoodmanySMEsareunabletoconducttechnologyresear,theexternalityoftechputbySMEsmorethandoublestheenterprises,,smallan,strengthofChinasSMEsisbyfarlowerthandevelopedcountries,,duetotheimperfectionofChinastechnologymarket,SMEscaneasilygainadvancedequipmentinthemarket,suchasthepurchaseofadvancedequipmentandcomputersystemswithcashorbymeansoffinancelease,,enterprises,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinChinaarealsotryingtocatchupwithworldadvancedtechnologiesandaremainlyinvestinginmaturetechnologiesadoptedbydevelopedcountries,whereastheyarrmediarytechnicalserviceagencies,developedcountrieshaveachievedgoodresultsinincreasingtechnologysourcesandimprovingtechnology-applyingcapabilitiesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises. m-sizedandsmallenterprisesand,toimprovetheirdefectiveRDandtechnology-applyingcapabilities,bothcountrieshaveguidedRDinstitutionstodevelopappliedtechnologiesformedium-sizedandsmallenterprisesandsetupintermediarytechnicalserviceagenciestoenhancetheabilnterprisesAppliedtechnologyresearchanddevelopmentagenciesareamustforRD-deficient,therearelotsofindependently-runappliedtechnologyresearchanddevel,mostareengagedinthedevelopmentofappliedtechnologies,including:66researchinstitutesunderFraunhofer-Gesellschaftmainlyfundedbythefederalgovernment,86researchinstitutesundertheLeibniz-Gemeinschaft,16researchcentersunderHelmholtz,350researchinstitutionsorsoofcollegesanduniversitiesjointlyfundedbythefederalgovernmentandstategovernments,lynonprofitorganizations,suchasassociationsandfoundations,developmentinstitutionstodeveloptechnologiesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises:Firstly,theRDinstitutionswillsettheguidelineof"providingtechnicalservicesforenterprises"and,mostly,theywillnotcommercializ,theRDinstitutionswillsetupreasonablegovernancemechanisms,suchasestablishingcouncilsdominatedbyadiversityofexternalmembers,roveimportantmatters,guaranteetheimplementationoforganizati,governmentguidanceisexercisedbygovernmentofficersparticipatingindecision-makingoftheinstitutionsasmembersofthecouncilsand,moreimportantly,thegovernmentgivespartofthefundstotradeassociationsparticipatedmainlybysmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesformanagementandtradeassociationsrepresentingthedemandersguideRDinstitutionstocooperatewithsmall,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesinGermanyarestrongandoftenentrustscientificresearchinstitutionstodeveloptechnologiesforenterprises.

    ,2016Duringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod,theworldeconomyisundergoinggreatadjustment,theglobaleconomicgovernancereformisunderway,,howshouldChinaopenwidertotheoutsideworldHowshouldChinaformanewpatternofall-roundopening-upHowshouldChinareformfurtherHowshouldChinapromoteinnovation,eco-friendlydevelopment,andindustrialupgradingHowshouldChinaformnewadvantagesininternationalcompetitionHowshouldChinaplayabetterroleinglobalgovernanceAnelaborationwillbegivenbyLongGuoqiang,’sEconomicReformandOpening-UpintheNewNormalOpendevelopmentisamajorpartofthephilosophyofinnovative,coordinated,green,open,andshareddevelopment,proposedattheFifthPl,asChina’seconomyentersthenewnormal,d,thenewdevelopmentstrategiesguidedbyt,underthenewnormal,opening-upstrategiesshouldmakefulluseofexternalresourcesandmarkets,andintegratethosewiththeirdomesticcounterparts,soastoboostinnovation,’seconomyentersthenewnormal,itisnecessarytoimproveChina’spositionintheglobaldivisionoflabor,whic,throughfurtheropening-up,advancedindustrialactivities,factorsofproductionandmoreadvancedtechnologyinfieldslikemanufacturingandservices,andpromoteChina’,itisnothardtofindthatmanyfieldswerenotfullyopeneduptotheoutsideworld,,intheearlyindustrialdevelopment,protectedandnurturedtheirinfantindustriesbyrestrictingimportsoflikeproducts,,industrieswiththepolicyareoverlyprotectedfortoolong,justlikeflowersinthegreenhouse,,thisproblemstandsinthewayofmanycapitalortechnology-intensiveindustries,,Chinastarteditsautoindustryinthe1950swhilethetimeforSouthKoreawas1970s,,China’sautoindustryisyet,China’,China’smanufacturingindustryhasbeenseverelychallenged,,,itismajortochangetheadvantagefromlowcosttoquality,technology,brand,andservice;foranother,importanceshouldbeattachedtopreparingChinesecapitalandt,reformisthekey,namely,deepe’smore,itisnecessarytopropelreformbyfurtheropening-up,whichistochangewhatguidedthedevelopmentofcapitalandtechnologyindustries,andreplacetheconceptof“importinsteadofdevelopment”withthatof“opendevelopment”.rySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina,itiscrucialtoformanewpatternofall-roundopening-upbetweenlandandsea,homeandabroad,,strategiesandmechanismsareintegrated,,workshouldbedoneintwoways,thefirstofwhichistobuildanewopeneconomicsystemandfurtherimprovemanagementandservice,andthesecondistoformnewpatternofopening-up,,hePeople’sRepublicofChinaissuedOpinionsonBuildingaNewOpenEconomicSystemin2015,withanoverallgoalofacceleratingthefosteringofnewadvantagesininternationalcooperationandcompetition,moreproactivelypromotingthebalancebetweendomesticdemandandoverseasmarketdemand,betweenimportsandexports,andbetweenintroducingforeigncapitalandinvestingoverseas,graduallyrealizingtheinternationalbalanceofpayment,soastoformanewpatternofall-roundopening-stage,onthebasisofitscurrentstageofdevelopment,Chinashoulddesignthesystemaccordingt’ssocialistmarketeconomy,formulatedattheThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChina,requi,intermsofspace,,,covering65countries,givesm,coastal,,leadtheupgradingofChina’sindustrialstructure,andcontinueinnovating,namely,,duetotheirspecialgeographicallocations,areofimportanceforChinatoimplementitsdiplomaticstrategiestowardsneighbors,tobuildChina’spathwaysconnectingothercountries,andtoconstituteasignificantstrategicframeworkensuringresourcesecurity,energysecurity,,manyplaceshavesuccessive,Xi’ancitywillbuilditselftobethenewstartofSilkRoadEconomicBelt(SREB);GansuProvinceplanstobeahighlightofSREB;andNingxiaHuiA,feasiblemeasuresshouldbeimplementedtoopenupcentralre,Chinashouldgiveplaytoitsstrengthsinglobaldivisionoflaborandcompetition,,especiallylabor-intensiveonesoverthepastthreedecades,greatachievementshavebeenaccomplished,,theexportedgoodsmost,opencompetitionmeansmore,,Chinashouldgraduallyreducetradeprotection,introducecompetition,promoteinnovationintechnology,brandandbusinessmodel,andenhanceinternationalcompetitiveness....Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

    ,’andacceleratingrebound.(1),theaveragenon-performingloanratio%.%,%higherthanin2013,,Chinahastosimultaneouslydealwiththeslowdownineconomicgrowth,makedifficultstructuraladjustments,,,itisimpossibletomaintainthenon-performingloanratiobelow1%,,14listedbanks,comparedwithonlythreein2013,hadanon-performingloanratioofover1%bytheendof2014,amongwhichAgriculturalBankofChina,%,%%,,ChongqingRuralCommercialBank,andShengjingBank,other18listedbankshadanincreasingnon-performingloanratioin2014,,ChinaEverbrightBank,AgriculturalBankofChina,ChinaMinshengBank,ShanghaiPudongDevelopmentBankandBankofChongqing,%.(2),t%,amongwhichChinaMinshengBank,PingAnBank,IndustrialBankandChinaMerchantsBankexceeded1%.Comparedwith2013,%%inAgriculturalBankofChina,PingAnBankandChinaMerchantsBank.(3),,the%,%,asfarasthespecificbanksareconcerned,14A-sharebanksexperiencedasharpincreaseinthemigrationratiofornormalloansmigrationratio,,,%,%,asforspecificbanks,thoughPingAnBank,ChinaMinshengBankandBankofChinaexperiencedafallingmigrationratioforspecial-mentionloans,other13A-sharebankssawasignificantincreaseinthemigrationratiofornormalloans.(4),theratiooflistedbanks,%,wasstillwaybelowthatofothermajoreconomiesandtheaverageofthe20largestbanksintheworld(seeTablebelow).ByChenChangsheng,DepartmentofMacroeconomicResearch,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo102,2013(Total4351)Overthepastthreedecades,%,,ChinaspercapitaGDProsefromUS$154toUS$6,060,orfrom220internationaldollarsto9,100internationaldollarsbasedonpurchasingpowerparity,indic,Chinahasgrownfromasmalltraderwithashareoflessthan1%intheworldtothelargestexporterofgoodsandthelargestmanufactureroftheworld,$,Chinaisthesecondlargesteconomyintheworld,onlyaftertheUnitedStates,,,thecurrentstageofdevelopmentandthechangedworldeconomicorderhavebroughtdifferentfeaturestoChina,andtheeconomicoperationwillbecomemorefragile,usheringin,therewillbeadiminishedadvantageoflow-costlabor,,peoplebecomelesswillingtohavechildren,andthelong-,Chinawillseeademographicstructurefeaturinglowbirthrate,,dragthesavingsratedown,,inves,ewhatadvancedcountieshaveachievedforyearsisthattheformercancapitalizeexistingadvancedtechnologiesandsystemstoenhancefastthetotalfactorsproductivity(TFP).However,theycouldonlygetlimitedfrontiertechnologiesandountrieswillseesteppeddeclineanddropsignificantlywhenpercapitaGDPreachesabout10,,thetechnologicalstrideswillobviouslyslowdown,,thespaceformoredduction,,ontheonehand,fastincreasingdemandforimportantindustrialproductsandcapitalgoodsasevidencedbyhikingoutputofsteel,electricity,auto,cementandhouseholdappliance,andontheotherhand,theconcentrationofpopulationandrelevantfactors,increasingintegrationofdomesticmarketandfastenhancementoftheurbanalueandtheurbanizationratewillgrowslowerwhenthepercapitaGDPreachesabout11,ialproductsinChina,theabsolutepeakvalueorthegrowthpeakvalueoftheoutputofsteel,cement,,sswiftinvolvementinglobalizationhasexpandeditsexternaldem,Chinasshareintheworldtrade(11%),China,furtherupgradingofChinasexportswillbringstrongercompetitors(mainlydevelopedcountrieslikeEurope,AmericaandJapan)andturndifferentiatedcompetitionsintohomogeneouscompetitions,thereb,withcontinuouslyrisinglaborcost,Chinastraditionalexportadvantage,tsexportgrowthfromover20%toaround10%,rowthFollowingtheHigh-growthPeriodThehistoryofgrowthofvariouscountries(economies)aftertheIndustrialRevolutionindicatesthatthereareupsanddownswithth,catch-upeconomiescanalwaysmakeuseofexistingexperienceintechnology,management,market,systemandotv,ittakestheUK141yearsandtheUnitedStates109yearstoincreasetheirrespectivepercapitaGDPfrom1,800internationaldollarsto11,,SingaporeandHongKongSARofChinahaveonlyspent54,37and31yearsrespectivelytoreachthatgoal,,thelowertheoriginalpercapitaGDPis,thehighertheaveragegrowthrateisinthecatch-upprocess;thelatertheeconomytakesoff,,historyshowsthatnoteverytake-offeconomycansmoothlyachieveindustrializationandenjoysteadylanding,,atotalof101countriesandregionshaverankedamongglobalmiddle-incomecountriesaftershort-termfastgrowth,buttill2008,only13countriesandregionshadsuccessfullyj,SouthKorea,TaiwanandHongKongSARofChina,PuertoRico,Mauritius,SingaporeandIsrael,etc..However,mostcountriesandregio"middle-incometrap"featuringeconomicstagnationandevensetbackduetovariousreasons,typicallyrepresentedbysomeLatinAmericancountriesandanumberofstatesfromformerSovietUnionandEasternEurope.大佬PTSKY酷炫财神游戏Thesurveyfindsthatthereisasignifi,enterprisesintheeastha,lar,state-ownedenterprises,state-controlledcompaniesandforeign-investedcompaniesenjoyrelativelybetterbusiness,whileprivateenterprisesseerelativelyworsebusiness(seeTable1).Withregardtoindustry,relativelybetterbusinessperformanceisidentifiedintheproductionandsupplyofelectricity,heatingpower,gasandwater,informationtransmissionsoftwareandinformationtechnologyservices,rentalandleasingandbusinessservices,manufactureofpharmaceuticals,electronicequipment,instruments,,respondentsreporting“good”businessareover25percentagepointsmorethanthosereporting“bad”,chemicalfibers,“good”businessareover20percentagepointsfewerthanthosereporting“bad”,andprofitsarebasicallystableInthesurvey,comparedwith2013,%ofrespondentsreporta“decrease”inthequantityoftheiroutput(services);%notean“unchanged”quantity,%seean“increase”inoutput(services).Accordingtothesurvey,42%ofrespondentssaytheircurrentsales“decrease”;33%report“unchanged”sales,and25%reportan“increase”es“decrease”“increase”,respectively,whichisclearlybetterthantheresultinthefirsthalfof2014butstillworsethantheresultof2013(seeTable2).Table2CurrentOutput(Services),SalesComparedwith2013(%)

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    66亚洲官网网页版澳门曼哈顿EnergyissueisofstrategicimportanceaffectingChinasoveralleconomicandsociald,DRChasundertakenamajorresearchprojectonthestrategiesforChinasmid-andlong-termenergydevelopmentwiththeinvolvementofover70expertsfromrelevantChfanddemandforenergy;objectives,principles,androadmapofChinasfutureenergydevelopment;thecontroversialenergytechnologiessuchascoalchemical,nuclearpower,andelectricvehicles;keyenergyconsumingareassuchasurbanizationandtransport;,utionandSignificantChangesAreTakingPlaceinEnergyTechnology,,riodfeaturedbymulti-pointbreakthroughs,,renewableenergy,,electriccarsanndstorage(CCS)esbasedontheirresourceendowment,andwillproduceaprofoundimpactonstructureofenergysupply,modeofproductionandutilization,industrialorganizationandregionalstructure,,sign"peakoiltheory",thenewlyincreasedoildemandofChinaanityinvolvingthetraditionaloilproducingareas,,icaenergyindependent,,theUnitedStatesismoretoughandradicalinpushingthedemocratizationprocessintheMiddleEastdisregardingtheconstraintofoilissue,ngestoChinathatisthumbingaliftofinternationalenergytransitsecurity,makingitexposedtothegeo-politicalrisksinitssurroundingareas,,withthedecliningshareofitsnaturalgasinEurope,RussiahastoexportitsnaturalgastoEastAsia,cau,theglobalenergydemandisboundtogrowcontinuouslyand,eventhoughtheworldhasmadetremendouseffortstopushforwardgreentransformation,,%%,theenergydemandincrementsofChinaandIndiawouldtakeup33%and29%respectivelyoftheworld,althoughthedevelopmentofunconventionaloilandgasinNorthAmericahasimprovedtheregionalenergysupplytosomeextent,withcountriesinSouthAsia,ASEANandMiddleEaststeppinguptheirindustrializationprocess,,the,astheChineseeconomyisshiftingfromitshighgrowthtothemid-high,,ifcorrectenergystrategiesandpolicieswereadopted,economicrestructuringandindustrialupgradingwereacceleratedwhilelowcarbontransportationandgreenbuildingsweredeveloped,theenergydemandwouldbecontrolledataround5billiontonsa,China%annually,%intheperiodof2020-2030,%,Chinasenergyself-sufficiencyhasgenerallymaintainedatafairlyhighlevel,butthedependenceonoilandnaturalgasimporthaskeptclimbingwhiletheenvironmentalpressuresste,Chinasoilco,thedependenceonoilimportwouldreacharound75%by2030andthatofnaturalgaswouldalsorisespeedily,leadingtoseverechallengestoChinaalpressures,,itwouldposemajorchallengestoChinassocioeconomicdevelopment,,,NOX,,theemissionintensitywerenotcutandthecurrenttrendwerenotcontained,,GreenandHighlyEfficiaseffortstoacceleratethetransformationofitseconomicdevelopmentmode,Chinasenergystrategyshouldfocusonpromotingthetransformationofthemodeofenergydevelopmentinordertoestablishasafe,greenandhighlyefficientenergysysteminitiallyby2020,thefollowingsixareas:ensuringenergysecurity,prioritizingenergyconservation,optimizingenergystructure,targetinglowemissions,,whilestressingtherelianceondomesticresources,thedevelopmentofnewenergyandnaturalgaizethedomesticproduction,andc,ucetherelianceonoilimportfromtheMideastandthatonoilshippingthroughMalaccaStrait,iesshouldbeencouragedtoinvestinChinafocusingonthemid-and-downstreambusinesses,whileChineseenterprisesshouldbeencouragedtoinvestov,thecapabilitiminvolvingnationalbusinesse,perationsofpowersystemanditsshippingroutesensured.ByLiuShouying,,2016AgriculturalmodernizationinChinahasalwaysbeenimpededbytheproblemofsmall-scaleandscatteredoperationofruralfarmland,whichismainlycaus,thecentralgovernmenthaspoliciesofencouragingvoluntary,law-based,,ruralfarmlandtransfertakesthetrendofacceleratedgrowthandpresentssomenewfeaturesdearly1990s,,from1984to1992,%offarmersnevertransferredfarmland,%,,842householdsintheeastern,centralandwesternareas,conductedbyruralsurveysitessetbyMinistryofAgriculture,%ofthetotalfarmland,with9%,%%fortheeastern,centralandwesternregionsrespectively[].Forthepastfewyears,anincreasingamountoffarmlandhasbeentransferred,withatotalareaof403millionmu()bytheendof2014,,%offarmlandcontractedandoperatedbyhouseholds,,theproportionoftransferredfarmlandisindescendingorderfromthecentraltoeastern,andtowesternregions,,%intheeasternregion,%inthecentralregion,%inthewesternregion,,,ties,likeShanghai(%),Jiangsu(%),Beijing(%),andZhejiang(%),sofMinistryofAgriculture,farmlandcanbetransferredinfivewaysincludessubcontracting,leasing,jointstockpartnership,exchanging,andtransferring,%,%,%,%%respectivelyin2014,%,w,however,,,farmlandismainlytransferredthroughsubcontractingandleasinginallregions,%,%%ofthetotaltransferredfarmlandrespectivelyintheeastern,,morethan60%,lessthan40%hatintheeasternandwesternregions,butrosefrom2011to2013,shipwashigh,over10%%in2013intheeasternregions,%%ithwideregionaldifferencesFrom2010to2014,theareaofsubcontractedfarmlandgrowinggraincropsincreasedfrom103millionto229millionmu,%%ofthetotaltransferredfarmland,,%%oftransferredfarmlandinJilinProvinceandHeilongjiangProvincerespectivelywasusedforgrainproduction,withtheareaoftransferredfarmlandforgrainproductioninmajorgrain-producingareashigherthanthenationalaverage,likeInnerMongolia(%),Jiangxi(%),Anhui(%),Henan(%).However,%inBeijing,%inGuizhou,%inHainan,%inGuangdong,%distransferredtomultiplepartieslikenon-farmers,,,%ofthetotalhouseholdscontractingandmanagingfarmland,,42millionfarmlandtransfercontractshavebeensigned,involvinganareaof269millionmu,,%ofthetotalareaoftransferredfarmland,owthoffarmlandtransfer,,thenumberoffarminghouseholdswithfarmlandlessthan10muwas226million,%ofthetotalhouseholdscontractingandoperatingfarmland,%.Specificallyspeaking,thenumbersoffarminghouseholdswithfarmlandbetween10and30muandbetween30―%%,thenumberoffarminghouseholdswithlessthan50muoffarmlandwasthelion’sshare(%),whichcorrespondstotheratiobetweenfamilysizetolandarea,technicalconditionsandfarmers’operationskills(seeTable7).Inaddition,,―100muoffarmland;750,000farminghouseholdshad100―200mu;and310,,itisofnecessitytofocusontheeffectsofalargenumberofhouseholdswithmoderatescaleoffarmi,farmlandisoper,,%oftransferredfarmlandisoperatedbyfarmers,whoarestillthemajorplayer,,farmlandisalsotransferredamongplentyofparties,likefarmingspecializedcooperatives(%),enterprises(%),andothers(%).Itisworthnotingthat,comparedwith2010,;;;...Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

    ByLuoYuze,,2015WithgreatsignificanceforChinatobuildanewtypeofopeneconomysystem,’,withtheinflowofforeigncapital,equipment,technology,talentsandmanagementexperienceviaopening-uptotheoutsideworld,Chinahasmaderemarkableachievementsineconomicdevelopment,,influencedbysuchfactorsasregionalconditions,resourceendowmentanddevelopmentstages,China’sopening-upischaracterizedbydisharmonyandimbalanceof“highspeedintheeastbutlowinthewest”,and“strongmomentuminthecoastalareasbutweakintheinlandareas”.Aimingatconstructinganewtypeofopening-upandcooperationpatternfeaturingeast-westinteraction,north-southconnectivity,coordinateddevelopmentofthecoastalandinlandareas,andintegrationofdomesticandoverseasdevelopment,theBeltandRoadInitiativeprovidesacomprehensivestrategicfoundationforChinatooptimizethespatialallocationofeconomicactivities,connectdo,manyfactorsinvolved,geopoliticalcomplication,imbalancedeconomicdevelopmentandculturaldiversity,theBeltandRoadInitiativecallsforacompletepolicysupportsystemfromthegovernmentsoastofacilitateenterprises’internationalcooperationvia“GoGlobal”rward,theBeltandRoadInitiativehasreceivedactiveresponsesfrommorethan60countriesandregions,becomingthemajorconsensusofthec,thereareinevitableproblemsandchallenges,ingtheirpoliticalandsocialtransformation,,culturalandsocialconflictsintertwinedwithoneanother,,,theMiddleEast,CentralAsiaandSouthAsiaarecalledStrategicArcofInstability,,Chinahasactivelypromoted,withsometerritorydisputesunsettled,therearestillprominentproblemsandconflicts,’sinternationalstatusfurtherimproved,,thedevelopmentoftherelationshipbetweenthetwomajorcountrieswillhavegrowingimpactsonthisregion’uctureisthemainbottleneckthatconstrainsthe,ofthe54countrieswithdataforcompetitiveness,only4(Singapore,theUnitedArabEmirates,CroatiaandSlovenia)haveahigherinfrastructur(ADB),thatbetween2010and2020,Asia’sinfrastructureinvestmentdemandis$800billion,ofwhichonlyabout$20billioncanbeprovidedasloansfromADB,dRoadCountriesDuetothedifferencesineconomicdevelopmentlevel,allocationofeconomicactivitiesandpopulationdensityingeographicalareas,thecountriesinCentralAsiawithsparselypopulatedareas,,itismostlylikelythatthebestchoicefortheregionmaynotbethebestoneforaparticularcountry,,theinternationalinfrastructureconstructioninvolvesconflictofinterests,,inmanycases,,ooperationLaggingBehindSevereobstaclesarefoundintradeliberalizationandinvestmentfacilitationinmanycountriesduetounsoundandunstablelaws,lowconstructionleveloffreetradezone,manytradeandinvestmentbarriers,suchasstricterlicensesystem,non-unifiedcustomsproceduresanddocuments,inconsistentstandardsandregulationsforinfrastructureconstruction,,eitherlacksmajorcountries’leadershipandstrongpush,orfailstocoverallareasorinvolveslowlevelcooperation,startfortheconstructionoftheBeltandRoad,,“VisionandActionsonJointlyBuildingSilkRoadEconomicBeltand21stCenturyMaritimeSilkRoad”hasbeenpublished,becomingtheguidingdocumentforthisarea’,influencebro,grandplansforregionalcooperationwereputforwardbefore,suchastheInfrastructureDevelopmentPlanforAsianLandTransportproposedbytheUnitedNations’EconomicandSocialCommissionforAsiaandthePacificin1992andtheplantobuildapan-A①proposedinOctober,2010byASEAN,well-knownforitsenforcement,ltilateralcooperation,apartfromaleadershipplayer,itisalsoamusttohaveagoodtop-leveldesign,doanoverallplanning,setupcorrespondingmechanism,poolal,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.①Includingconnectivityofinfrastructureandconnectivityofmechanisms(namely“policycommunication”inourwords),andpeople-to-peoplecommunication(namel“people-to-peoplebond”inourwords).ByWeiJigang,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo142,2014(Total4641),ageographerofthelateMingandearlyQingDynasty,inhisDushiFangyuJiyao(EssenceofHistoricalGeography),Hebei“occupiestheupstreamandpossessesthepotentialtodefendattacksfromtheworld,WouldntitbethenowZhili(anadministrativedivision)”Inthenewhistoricalperiod,promotingtheoptimizationandupgradingoftheindustrialstructureinHebeiProvinceisofcrucialimportanceforitso,regionalandprovincialconditions,Hebeineedstopositionitsindustryinthelightofdomesticandinternationalchangesinindustrialstructure,chooseitsdevelopmentdirectioninlinewiththemarketdemand,regionallabordivisionandcoordinationaswellasindustrialdevelopmentpattern,anddeterminethebreakthroughfieldsbasedontheexistingfoundations,ionofHebeiProvinceAtpresent,theworldeconomicstructurehasundergonemajorchanges,andtheworldeconomicfocusisshiftingtoAsia,,newmajorbreakthroughswillbeseeninnewscienceandtechnologyaswellasinnewindustry;intdustryandtradeinallcountries,,globalizationfacilitatesglobalconnectivityandmobility,booststhedeepeningofgloballabordivisionandtheformationofglobalvaluechain;thetrendsofglobalresearchdevelopment,globalprocurement,production,,,whilesomelow-endlinksshifttothedevelopingcountrieswithmorecostadvantagesinprimaryfactors;internationalcompetitionbecomesmorefierce,andtradefrictionsandbarriersarestillontherise;industrialdevelopmentshouldmeetthedemandforthegoodsandservicescharacterizedbybeinggreen,energy-saving,environmentallyfriendly,intelligent,highquality,,Chinahasbecometheworldsbiggestpowerofmanufacturingandtrade,,,newfeaturesofthecurrenttimesareembodiedinregionaleconomicintegration,constructionofurbanagglomerations,regionalblocs,andtheestablishmentofFreeTradeArea(FTA).IntermsoftheregionaleconomicdevelopmentandlabordivisioninChina,whileaccountingforalargepartofthetotaleconomyandwithrelativelywelldevelopedurbanagglomeration,theYangtzeRiverDeltaandPearlR,Shanghaifocusesonthedevelopmentofmodernserviceindustryandadvancedmanufacturingindustryas,JiangsuandGuangdonghavetheirownleadingindustries,nlocation,environmentandr,andTianjinputmoreimportanceinthedevelopmentofheavychemicalindustry,manufacturingindustry,high-endandnewtechnology,shipping,entyears,,agricultureandindustry,,,petrochemicalindustryandequipment,flatglass,penicillinandvitaminCrunsthefirstinthecountry,boastingsomefamousbrandnamesandresourceadvantagesincoal,petroleum,iron,,,:poorinnovationcapacity;weakcorecompetitiveness;homogeneousproduction;low-levelrepetition;lackofspecialtyindustry;lackofprofitsfromproducingqualityproducts;seriousindustrialovercapacity;scaleexpansionbyoverdependenceonlabor,land,resourceandotherfactors;environmentaldegradationandresourcesdepletion;bigchallengesofenvironmentalcontrol3;severeshortageofwaterresource4;growingconflictbetweenhumandemandandlandavailability;inadequatedevelopmentofvariousmarkets;lowdegreeofoutward-orientationandopenness;weekoceanconsciousness;lessdevelopednon-state-ownedeconomyandfewersmallandmediumenterprises(SMEs)comparedwithotherdevelopedprovinces5;lesssatisfactoryenvironmentfortheenterprisesdevelopment;lowinclusivenessofindustryandsociety;lackofwell-developedmetropolitanareas,sparsespatiallayoutofindustries;lackofindustrylinkage;thedevelopmentandcapacityofrailways,ports,aviation,logistics,supplychainmanagement,marketing,RD,finance,sindustrialstructureneedtobeconsideredfrommultipleperspectivesofhistory,geography,growth,future,linkage,newtechnology,internationalsituationandspace.

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    sHRServiceIndustryInrecentyears,withitsdiversifyingservicescopesandcontentsanditsgrowingabilitytoservetheeconomicandsocialdevelopment,theHR(humanresource)serviceindustryhasconstantlyexpandedinChina,,therehadbeen28,356HRserviceagenciesthroughoutthecountry,employing336,,thenumberofpublicemploymentserviceagencieshadreached6,914,%oftotalhumanresourceserviceagencies;thenumberofpublicpersonnelserviceagencieshadreached2,939,%;thenumberofstate-ownedhumanresourceservicecompanieshadreached1,204,%;thenumberofprivately-operatedhumanresourceservicecompanieshadreached17,087,%;andthenumberofHongKong,Macao,Taiwanandforeign-investedhumanresourceservicecompanieshadreached212,%.Asoftheendof2012,allhumanresourceserviceagenciesacrossthecountryhadsetupatotalof21,000fixedrecruitment(exchange)venuesand9,206HRmarketwebsites,amongHRserviceworkers,variousprovinces(autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesdirectlyundertheCentralGovernment)haveestab,111,012HRserviceworkershadobtainedtheprofessionalqualifications,%oftotalHRworkers,,dingconstantlyinChina,,includingjobrecruitmentservices,occupationalguidance,consultingservices,personnelappraisement,personneltraining,searchandinterviewofseniortalents,recruitmentfairs,HRinformationnetworks,humanresourceandsocialsecurityagencyservices,instooffercomprehensiveHRoutsourcingservicestocustomers,thusfacilitatingtheintegrat,,withthenon-publicsectorbeingthemainrecipientoftheservices;conducted180,000trainingcoursesofvarioustypes,;;;offeredhumanresourceoutsourcingservicesto430,000employingunits;headhuntingservicesfurtherdeveloped,with880,tcompetition,includingsuchstate-ownedenterprisesasFESCO,CIICandChinaStarCorpthatoperateonbigscale,aswellasprivately-operatedfirmsandSino-foreignjointventures,suchasJOBS-US,,htheoccurrenceof"laborshortage"and"employmentstraits"andthesharpeningofstructuralcontradictionsinHRmarket,theroleplayedbyHRserviceagenciesinhumanresourcemarketdistributionhasbeenfurtherstrengthenedandtheHRmarkethasbecomeamajorchannelfo,,;conducted208,000fieldrecruitmentfairs(exchanges)invarioustypes(ofwhich65,000fairswerespecificallyforcollegegraduatesand59,000fairswerespeciallyformigrantfarmerworkers),anincreaseof18,000over2011;,,untrywide,up26%ascomparedto2011;theagenciesprovidedlabordispatchservicesfor350,000employingunits,sHRServiceIndustryCurrently,someproblemsneedingpromptsolutionstillexistinChinasHRserviceindustry,whicharebeingexposedinfollowingaspects:ledThepublichumanresourceserviceagenciesfocusmostlyontraditionalpublicserviceitems,suchasrecruitment,archivesmanagement,,publicservicesinoriginalpersonnelandlabormarketshavebeengraduallyintegratedinsomeregions,,theintegrationofthepersonnelmarketandthelabormarketarenotyetinplaceinmanyplaces,incurringsegmentationamongregiona,thefunctionalpositioningofthepublicHRserviceagenciesremainsambiguous,officesandservicefacilitiesarebeingconstructedinanunbalancedwayandthepublicserviceefficiencyisunabletofullyurtheroptimizedFirstly,policiesformulatedbygovernments,ChinasoverallpolicysystemforpromotingHRserviceindustryremainsimperfect,andpoliciesformulatedbygovernmentsatvariouslevelsinfavoroftheHRserviceindustryarequitelimitedandthegovernmentinvestmentinp,,theHRserviceagenciesoftenfaceanumberofproblems,suchasfailuretorecognizequalificationsmutuallyandtherequirementforreapplyingforbusinesspermits,whichcauseslocalprotectionismandbusinessmonopolytoacertainextent,impedingHRserviceagencies,,someHRserviceagenciesconductrule-breakingoperationsandareinvolvedinviciouscompetitions,andsomecompaniesevenofferfalsemessagestodeceivejobseekers,infringingthelegitimaterightsandinterests,thereisnounifiedHRservicestandardizationsystem,gsbehindFirstly,,beinglessnormativeandinstructionaltotheindust,HRmarketsupervisorteamconstructiongotofftoalatestartinvariousprovincesandmunicipalities,,tradeorganizationsaremostly"government-incubated",withweakserviceawarenessandshortoffunds,andtheyplaylittleroleinindustryself-regulation,operationalguidanceandformulationofservicestandards.

    沙霸现金h88注册即送38元ByLiZhijun,Techno-EconomicResearchDept,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo42,2013(Total4291)ChemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisanimportantintegralpartofChinasmedicalindustryanditaccountsforabouthalfofthetotaloutputvalueofChina,structuralreadjustmentandthetransformationandupgradingofChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustryisofvitalimportancetofacilitatingtheever-increasinggrowthofthemedicalindustry,protectingandimprovingpeopleshealth,addressingnaturaldiscalrawmedicine,Chinacanproducemorethan1,500kindsofchemicalrawpharmaceuticals,withthecountryscapacityrangingfrom2millionto3milliontons,accountingforabout20%straditionallysuperiorproducts,suchasantibiotics,vitaminsandantipyreticandanalgesicdrugs,enjoyabigmarketshare,bulkpharmaceuticalchemicalswithdistinguishingfeatures,suchasstatins,perindoprilsandlosartans,havebecomenewsuperiorexportproductsand,thenumberofva,suchasfloxacins,statins,vitaminB2,rifampicinsandantibiotics,arenowallbeingexported,,chemicalagentproductionisjustinafledgingperiod,withnewdrugresearchanddevelopmentbein,000kindsofchemicalagents,andartemisinin,aChina-origindrug,iswidelyusedacrosstheglobe,makingimp,Chinainvestednearly20billionyuaninanarrayofspecificprojects,suchas"NewMedicineDevelopmentProject",bringingalongtheinputofapproximately60billionyuanofsocialfundsinpharmaceuticalinnovationsphere,andsetupover50corporatenationaltechnologycentersthroughcollaborationofmanufacturers,schoolsandresearchinstitutions,,,HISUN,,CHIATAITIANQING,,,KangHongPharmaceuticalGroup,LUYEPHARMA,,,,TransformationandUpgradingofChinasPharmaceuticalIndustryandtheCausesThepharma,theindustrycangeneratehigherreturns,,themainproblemsfacingChinaschemicalpharmaceuticalindustrymainlyinclude:enterprisesbeingsmalleratlargethantransnationalpharmaceuticalgiants,themammothnumbersofpharmaceuticalenterprises,lowerindustrialconcentration,low-levelduplicateconstruction,serioushomogenizationandlow-levelcompetitions,poort,thechemicalpharmaceuticalindustryhasbeenhardhitbypricereductionfor30straighttimesin14years,irregulartender-basedpurchases,andtheformulationofdrugmanagementpoliciesinsuccession,narrowingtheprofitmarginsofenterprisesandseverelyimpedingthepharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment,GMPimprovement,comprehensiveenvironmentalprotectionmanagement,,whichmainlyinclude:oodandDrugAdministration,theimperfectionoftheexaminingsystemandtheunevennessoflevelsofenterprisesresearchanddevelopmentpapersallincuraviciouscircleofexaminingefficiencybeinglow,examiningqualitybeingpoor,exa"double-envelope"systemisadoptedbyvariouslocalitiesinpurchaseofessentialdrugsbyinvitationtobid,,thewarofpricereductionforworkperformancegoingonamongvariousprovincesandmunicipalitiesintender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugshasmadesomedrugpriceslowerandlower,,thepracticeofseekingafterlowpricescouldneitherreflectthefluctuatingtrendsofproductioncost,norleavesanyreasonableprofitmarginsforenterprises,whichisadeviationfromthemarketlawandthreatenstheexistenceanddevelopmentofsomeChineseto,winningthebiddingatbelow-costpricesissuspectedtogoagainstsomeestablishedlaws,leavingtender-basedpurchasingofessentialdrugsinfaceoflegalrisks,encumberingtheenterprisetransformationandcripplingthecorecompetitivenessofChinamaceuticalenterprisesusuallyaccountfor10%~15%oftheirsalesrevenues,withsomeevenreaching45%,whilefundsusedbyChineseenterprisesinpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopmentmakeuplessthan1%oftheirsalesrevenues,withasmallnumberreaching6%~8%.TheRDfundscostannuallybyallpharmaceuticalenterprisesinChinaadduptoatotalof10billionyuanorso,fallingfarbehindwhatisspentbyAmericanPfizeraloneinayearforpharmaceuticalresearchanddevelopment().TheaveragerateofprofitforChinesepharmaceuticalenterprisescomesgenerallyto9%orso,whereasthatofworldtop50pharmaceuticalfirmsamountsto18%,andthatoftop10evenreaches21%.levelredundantconstructionandovercapacityareindisputablefactsinChinasproductionofbulkpharmaceuticalchemicals(BPC),andanarrayofproducts,suchasvitaminCandpenicillin,havebeenclassifiedasrestrictive."Threekindsofwastes"generatedinBPCproductionturnouttobetheworst,,BPCiscategorizedbytheMinistryofEnvironmentalProtect,somelocalitiesarestillexpandingproductionblindlyandareengagedinredundantconstruction,thuscausingseverewaste.Source:ShandongFinanceOffice,YunnanFinanceOffice,QuanzhouFinanceBureau,,Shandongpractices,ingeneral,,Shandongplacesthelowestthresholdof30millionyuan,lowerthanthatoflocalsmallloancompanies,,Shan,Shandongsetsthemaximumandminimumequityproportionbymainpromoters(upto51%,andnolessthan20%),inanaimtoprevent“dominanceofoneshareholder”,avoidthedrawbacksofdispersedownershipincorporategovernanceperformance,andpreventbusinessfailureriskscause,forcompanieswithacertainlevelofriskappetiteandalsoqualifiedforsomeconditions(,mainpromoters’assetsofover3billionyuan,liability-assetratiobelow65%,profitablefortwoconsecutiveyears,andregisteredinJinanorQingdao),,besidesplacinghigherleverage,Shandonghasestablishedthreefinancingchannelssuchasshareholder’sloan,introducingholdersofpreferredshares,,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.①InNovember2011,Wenzhougovernmentissued“OpinionsOnFurtherAcceleratingtheInnovationandDevelopmentofLocalFinancialSectorinWenzhou”andproposedtolaunchpilotprogramsofprivatecapitalmanagementcompaniesintheareaswithmoderatelydevelopedeconomy,activeprivatecapital,insufficientformalfinancialinstitutions,,thefirstprivatecapitalmanagementcompanyinChinawassetupinWenzhou.②Theterm“TwoAbundancesandTwoDifficulties”referstotheabundanceofprivatecapitalandtheSMEsaswellasthedifficultiesininvestmentandinfinancing.③Accordingtothe“OverallPlanforGui’anNewAreaofGuizhouProvince”,Gui’anNewAreawillalsoinitiatepilotprogramsofprivatecapitalmanagementcompanies.

    澳门曼哈顿ByLiuShouying,,2016AgriculturalmodernizationinChinahasalwaysbeenimpededbytheproblemofsmall-scaleandscatteredoperationofruralfarmland,whichismainlycaus,thecentralgovernmenthaspoliciesofencouragingvoluntary,law-based,,ruralfarmlandtransfertakesthetrendofacceleratedgrowthandpresentssomenewfeaturesdearly1990s,,from1984to1992,%offarmersnevertransferredfarmland,%,,842householdsintheeastern,centralandwesternareas,conductedbyruralsurveysitessetbyMinistryofAgriculture,%ofthetotalfarmland,with9%,%%fortheeastern,centralandwesternregionsrespectively[].Forthepastfewyears,anincreasingamountoffarmlandhasbeentransferred,withatotalareaof403millionmu()bytheendof2014,,%offarmlandcontractedandoperatedbyhouseholds,,theproportionoftransferredfarmlandisindescendingorderfromthecentraltoeastern,andtowesternregions,,%intheeasternregion,%inthecentralregion,%inthewesternregion,,,ties,likeShanghai(%),Jiangsu(%),Beijing(%),andZhejiang(%),sofMinistryofAgriculture,farmlandcanbetransferredinfivewaysincludessubcontracting,leasing,jointstockpartnership,exchanging,andtransferring,%,%,%,%%respectivelyin2014,%,w,however,,,farmlandismainlytransferredthroughsubcontractingandleasinginallregions,%,%%ofthetotaltransferredfarmlandrespectivelyintheeastern,,morethan60%,lessthan40%hatintheeasternandwesternregions,butrosefrom2011to2013,shipwashigh,over10%%in2013intheeasternregions,%%ithwideregionaldifferencesFrom2010to2014,theareaofsubcontractedfarmlandgrowinggraincropsincreasedfrom103millionto229millionmu,%%ofthetotaltransferredfarmland,,%%oftransferredfarmlandinJilinProvinceandHeilongjiangProvincerespectivelywasusedforgrainproduction,withtheareaoftransferredfarmlandforgrainproductioninmajorgrain-producingareashigherthanthenationalaverage,likeInnerMongolia(%),Jiangxi(%),Anhui(%),Henan(%).However,%inBeijing,%inGuizhou,%inHainan,%inGuangdong,%distransferredtomultiplepartieslikenon-farmers,,,%ofthetotalhouseholdscontractingandmanagingfarmland,,42millionfarmlandtransfercontractshavebeensigned,involvinganareaof269millionmu,,%ofthetotalareaoftransferredfarmland,owthoffarmlandtransfer,,thenumberoffarminghouseholdswithfarmlandlessthan10muwas226million,%ofthetotalhouseholdscontractingandoperatingfarmland,%.Specificallyspeaking,thenumbersoffarminghouseholdswithfarmlandbetween10and30muandbetween30―%%,thenumberoffarminghouseholdswithlessthan50muoffarmlandwasthelion’sshare(%),whichcorrespondstotheratiobetweenfamilysizetolandarea,technicalconditionsandfarmers’operationskills(seeTable7).Inaddition,,―100muoffarmland;750,000farminghouseholdshad100―200mu;and310,,itisofnecessitytofocusontheeffectsofalargenumberofhouseholdswithmoderatescaleoffarmi,farmlandisoper,,%oftransferredfarmlandisoperatedbyfarmers,whoarestillthemajorplayer,,farmlandisalsotransferredamongplentyofparties,likefarmingspecializedcooperatives(%),enterprises(%),andothers(%).Itisworthnotingthat,comparedwith2010,;;;...Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByChenDaofu,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReport,(Total4571),peoplehavenoticedthefollowingincidentsthatRMBdepreciatedagainstUSdollar,variousdomesticcapitalpricesfellquickly,creditdefaultriskescalated,nomicandfinancialperformance,,,theconfusionofcapitalmarketshowsthatthemarketsfunctioninoptimizationofresourcesallocationunderthecurrentenvironmenthasbeengreatlyrestrained,ourcesmisallocationOntheonehand,moreandmoreinstitutions,linksandchainsrangingfromcapitalsourcestocapitalusersareinvolved,makingfundcirculationbecomeincrea,agrowingamountofcapitalinChinaispooled,converte,ahostofadministrativecontrolandsupervisionmeasuresarestillinplace,,financialinstitutionshaveescapedvariousfinancialcontrols(whichactuallyreflectsChinasdeepeningliberalizationininformalfinancialsystem)andinputtedcapitalintotheareasdiscourage,moreandmorefinancialinstitutionsandquasi-financialinstitutionsneedtobeincorporatedintothecapitalchain,,bondsandstockswitharelativelyshortchaininthetotalsocialfinancing,itwasabove80%before2009,butdroppedtoover70%in2010-2012andfurtherdroppedtoaround60%tedloansandtrustloans(Figure1).vironmentalsustainability,butpolitical,social,,theInternationalCommissionontheMeasurementofEconomicPerformanceandSocialProgressarguedthatoneofthereasonsthatGDPwasnotingeneralagoodmeasurewasthatGDPmetricsdidnotincludeassessmentsofsustainability:GDPcouldappeartobebothstrongandgrowing,,Iwanttofocusononeaspectofsustainability:the"social"ronmentalrisks,(andIwillarguerelated)risks:highlevelsofinequality,andespeciallyinequalityofopportunity,andalackoftrustinestablishedinstitutions,,—includingimplicationsforsocialandpoliticalstability—tappreciatetheimportanceoftrustinmakingamoderneconomyfunction;butintheabsenceoftrust,onepartywillcheatanother;eachpartywillgotogreatlengthstoinsurethatitwontorcantbecheated,orthatifitischeated,,wherevaluablesocietalresourcesaredevotedtodisputeresolution,ratherthantowealthcreation—,alargebodyofeconomicliteraturehasdevelopedfocusingontheimportanceoftrustandasenseoffairnessinsociety,,Ifirstdiscussinequality,then"trust"beforeturningtothepoliciesthatcanhelpChinamanagebothrisks.Ⅰ.InequalityOneofthegreatachievementsofChinaduringthepastthirdofacenturyhasbeenthereductioninp,,,ChinasGinicoefficient,astandardmeasureofinequality,rivalsthatoftheUS—,,thereisoftenamarkedincreaseininequality,assomepartsoftheeconomytake-offbeforeothers,inthepasthalfcentury,manydevelopingcountriesshowednotonlythatgrowthinearlystagesneednotbeaccompaniedbygreaterinequality,(Thisisevenmoresoifweusealternative,andarguablybetter,measuresofeconomicperformance,suchastheincomeofthemedianhousehold.)Somehavesimilarlyattemptedtojustifythehighlevelofinequalitybyassertingthatgrowinginequalityisaglobalphenomenon,,bothadvancedindustrialeconomiesandemergingeconomies,whichhavebuckedthetrend;inwhichinequalityisnotincreasing;:itispoliticsandpolicieswhichhaveshapedthelawsofeconomics,insomecasestoproducesocietieswithhighlevelsofequalityandequalityofopportunityandabroadsenseoffairness;andinothercases,,inforginga"marketeconomywithsocialistcharacteristics"ensurethatitspoliciesareoftheformerkind,"ensuringthatthemarkethasadecisiveroleinallocatingresources..."Butatthesametime,ittalkedabout"guaranteeingandimprovingthepeopleslivelihood...andstimulatingsocialfairnessandjustice,"guaranteeingthat"societyisbothfullofvitality,aswellasharmoniousandorderly."Marketeconomiesareoftenassociatedwithhighlevelsofinequalityandinequalityofopportunity,andinrecentdecadestheproblemsposedbytheseinequitieshavebecomemarkedlyworse,somuchsothatwhileGDP(asconventionallymeasured)hasbeengoingupinmostWesterncountries,(Wenote,however,thattheremaybelongperiodsforwhi,adjustedforinflation,GDPpercapitainFrance,Greece,Italy,Spain,andUKareallbelowthelevelattainedbeforethecrisis,morethanahalfdecadeago,insomecases,suchasGreece,,combinedwithreductionsinincome,,inthis,animportantlesson,alreadynoted:socialandeconomicrisksareintertwined.)Ifthisisthecase,doesntthemovetowardsmakingthemarketmoredecisivenecessarilyleadtogreatersocialrisksTheanswerisno,andtheReportofthe:"thecoreissuesaredealingwiththerelationshipbetweenthegovernmentandthemarket"Marketforces,evenwhentheyworkwellinthemannerthattheyaresupposedto,donotnecessarilyleadtoadistributionofincomeandwealththatisinanywayconsonantwithsocialharmony;quitethecontrary—asIhavenoted,theyoftencanle,health,,,andthesegenera,(saythemedian,whethermeasuredmorenarrowlybyincome,orevenmoreso,whenmeasuredmorebroadly,sHumanDevelopmentIndex,HDI,whichtakesintoaccountnotonlyincome,buthealthandeducation)performfarbetterthan,say,:thehigherlevelsofopportunityandthebettersystemsofsocialprotection(includingstrongersafetynets)arepartofthereasonforthesecountriesChinesecharacteristics,;therightoneswouldmitigatethemandensurethattheobjectivessetforthinthe3rdPlenumwouldbeachieved.

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